Pivotal GemFire® v9.6

JTA Global Transactions with GemFire

The Java Transaction API, JTA, is a standard Java interface you can use to coordinate GemFire transactions and JDBC transactions globally under one umbrella.

You can use JTA global transactions to coordinate GemFire transactions and JDBC transactions.

JTA provides direct coordination between the GemFire cache and another transactional resource, such as a database. The parties involved in a JTA transaction include:

  • The Java application, responsible for starting the global transaction
  • The JTA transaction manager, responsible for opening, committing, and rolling back transactions
  • The transaction resource managers, including the GemFire transaction manager and the JDBC resource manager, responsible for managing operations in the GemFire cache and database, respectively

Using JTA, your application controls all transactions in the same standard way, whether the transactions act on the GemFire cache, a JDBC resource, or both together. When a JTA global transaction is finished, the GemFire transaction and the database transaction are both complete.

When using JTA global transactions with GemFire, you have two options:

  • Coordinate with an external JTA transaction manager in a container (such as WebLogic or JBoss)
  • Set GemFire as the “last resource” while using a container (such as WebLogic or JBoss) as the JTA transaction manager

An application creates a global transaction by using javax.transaction.UserTransaction bound to the JNDI context java:/UserTransaction to start and terminate transactions. During the transaction, cache operations are done through GemFire as usual.

Note: See the Java documentation for more information on topics such as JTA, javax.transaction, committing and rolling back global transactions, and the related exceptions.

Coordinating with External JTA Transaction Managers

GemFire can work with the JTA transaction managers of several containers such as JBoss, WebLogic, GlassFish, and so on.

At startup GemFire looks for a TransactionManager (javax.transaction.TransactionManager) that has been bound to its JNDI context. When GemFire finds such an external transaction manager, all GemFire region operations (such as get and put) will participate in global transactions hosted by this external JTA transaction manager.

This figure shows the high-level operation of a JTA global transaction whose resources include a GemFire cache and a database.

An externally coordinated JTA global transaction is run in the following manner:

  1. Each region operation looks up for presence of a global transaction. If one is detected, then a GemFire transaction is started automatically, and we register a javax.transaction.Synchronization callback with the external JTA transaction manager.
  2. At transaction commit, GemFire gets a beforeCommit() callback from the external JTA transaction manager. GemFire does all locking and conflict detection at this time. If this fails, an exception is thrown back to JTA transaction manager, which then aborts the transaction.
  3. After a successful beforeCommit()callback, JTA transaction manager asks other data sources to commit their transaction.
  4. GemFire then gets a afterCommit() callback in which changes are applied to the cache and distributed to other members.

You can disable JTA in any region that should not participate in JTA transactions. See Turning Off JTA Transactions.

How to Run a JTA Transaction Coordinated by an External Transaction Manager

Use the following procedure to run a GemFire global JTA transaction coordinated by an external JTA transaction manager.

  1. Configure the external data sources in the external container. Do not configure the data sources in cache.xml . They are not guaranteed to get bound to the JNDI tree.
  2. Configure GemFire for any necessary transactional behavior in the cache.xml file. For example, enable copy-on-read and specify a transaction listener, as needed. See Safe Entry Modification.

  3. Make sure that JTA transactions are enabled for the regions that will participate in the transaction. See Turning Off JTA Transactions for details.

  4. Start the transaction through the external container.

  5. Initialize the GemFire cache. GemFire will automatically join the transaction.

  6. Execute operations in the cache and the database as usual.

  7. Commit the transaction through the external container.

Using GemFire as the “Last Resource” in a Container-Managed JTA Transaction

The “last resource” feature in certain third party containers such as WebLogic allow the use of one non-XAResource (such as GemFire) in a transaction with multiple XAResources while ensuring consistency.

In the previous two JTA transaction use cases, if the GemFire member fails after the other data sources commit but before GemFire receives the afterCommit callback, GemFire and the other data sources may become inconsistent. To prevent this from occurring, you can use the container’s “last resource optimization” feature, with GemFire set as the “last resource”. Using GemFire as the last resource ensures that in the event of failure, GemFire remains consistent with the other XAResources involved in the transaction.

To accomplish this, the application server container must use a JCA Resource Adapter to accomodate GemFire as the transaction’s last resource. The transaction manager of the container first issues a “prepare” message to the participating XAResources. If the XAResources all accept the transaction, then the manager issues a “commit” instruction to the non-XAResource (in this case, GemFire). The non-XAResource (in this case, GemFire) participates as a local transaction resource. If the non-XAResource fails, then the transaction manager can rollback the XAResources.

How to Run JTA Transactions with GemFire as a “Last Resource”

  1. Locate the version-specific geode-jca RAR file within the lib directory of your GemFire installation.
  2. Add your container-specific XML file to the geode-jca RAR file.

    1. Create a container-specific resource adapter XML file named <container>-ra.xml. For example, an XML file for a WebLogic resource adapter XML file might look something like this:

      <?xml version="1.0"?>
      <!DOCTYPE weblogic-connection-factory-dd PUBLIC '-//BEA Systems, Inc.//DTD WebLogic 9.0.0 Connector//EN' 
         <connection-factory-name>GFE JCA</connection-factory-name>

    2. Create a folder named META-INF, and place the container-specific XML file inside the directory. For example, the folder structure would look like this:


    3. Navigate to the directory above the META-INF folder and execute the following command, with appropriate substitutions for path and file names:

      $ jar -uf /path/to/lib/geode-jca-X-X-X.rar META-INF/weblogic-ra.xml

  3. Make sure that the geode-dependencies.jar is accessible in the CLASSPATH of the JTA transaction coordinator container.

  4. Deploy the version-specific geode-jca RAR file on the JTA transaction coordinator container. When deploying the file, you specify the JNDI name and so on.

  5. Configure GemFire for any necessary transactional behavior. Enable copy-on-read and specify a transaction listener, if you need one. See Safe Entry Modification.

  6. Get an initial context through org.apache.geode.cache.GemFireCache.getJNDIContext. For example:

    Context ctx = cache.getJNDIContext();

    This returns javax.naming.Context and gives you the JNDI associated with the cache. The context contains the TransactionManager, UserTransaction, and any configured JDBC resource manager.

  7. Start and commit the global transaction using the UserTransaction object rather than with GemFire’s CacheTransactionManager.

    UserTransaction txManager = (UserTransaction)ctx.lookup("java:/UserTransaction");
  8. Obtain a GemFire connection.

    GFConnectionFactory cf = (GFConnectionFactory) ctx.lookup("gfe/jca");
    //This step of obtaining connection is what begins the
    //If this is absent, GFE operations will not be part of any
    GFConnection gemfireConn = (GFConnection)cf.getConnection();